JAMB Syllabus 2021/2022 For Biology PDF Download: Here are all you need to know about biology areas of concentration as well as a syllabus for biology WAEC exam in 2021/22.
Are you in search of the complete WAEC syllabus for biology? Do you need the materials necessary to pass your biology very well in your WAEC exam?
Then this post is meant just for you. Here, we will provide you with the official WAEC biology syllabus and other areas of concentration you should read in other to pass your WAEC biology exam in style.
The syllabus contains the list of topics you are required to cover during the course of preparing for JAMB. It also contains the list of recommended JAMB textbooks which I have already covered here.
If you want to pass JAMB, there are basically three materials you need:
- JAMB syllabus
- JAMB recommended textbooks
- JAMB past questions
In today’s article, we will be dealing with JAMB syllabus for biology 2021 PDF download and online reading.
JAMB Syllabus 2021/2022 For Biology
The objectives of the course are as follows:
1. Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of the concepts of the diversity interdependence and unity of life;
2. Account for continuity of life through reorganization, inheritance and evolution;
3. Apply biological principles and concepts to everyday life, especially to matters affecting living things, individual, society, the environment, community health and the economy.
A: VARIETY OF ORGANISMS
1. Living organisms:
b. Cell structure and functions of cell Components
c. Level of organization
i. Cell e.g. euglena and paramecium,
ii. Tissue, e.g. epithelial tissues and hydra
iii. Organ, e.g. onion bulb
iv. Systems, e.g. reproductive, digestive and excretory
v. Organisms e.g. Chlamydomonas
2. Evolution among the following:
- Monera (prokaryotes), e.g. bacteria and blue green algae.
- Protista (protozoans and protophyta),
g. Amoeba, Euglena and Paramecium
- Fungi, e.g. mushroom and Rhizopus.
- Plantae (plants)
Thallophyta (e.g. Spirogyra)
ii. Bryophyta (mosses and liveworts) e.g. Brachmenium and Merchantia.
iii. Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g. Dryopteris.
iv. Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae and Angiospermae)
– Gymnosperms e.g. Cycads and conifers.
– Angiosperms (monocots, e.g. maize; dicots, e.g. water leaf)
- Animalia (animals)
– coelenterate (e.g. Hydra)
– Platyhelminthes (flatworms) e.g. Taenia
– Nematoda (roundworms)
– Annelida (e.g. earthworm)
– Arthropoda e.g. mosquito, cockroach, housefly, bee, butterfly
– Mollusca (e.g. snails)
ii. Multicellular animals (vertebrates)
– pisces (cartilaginous and bony fish)
– Amphibia (e.g. toads and frogs)
– Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes and turtles)
– Aves (birds)
– Mammalia (mammals)
3A. Structural/functional and behavioural adaptations of organisms.
a. Adaptive colouration and its functions
b. Behavioural adaptations in social animals
c. Structural adaptations in organisms.
B: FORM AND FUNCTIONS.
1. Internal structure of a flowering plant
- Internal structure of a mammal
- Modes of nutrition
Types of Nutrition
c. Plant nutrition
- Mineral requirements (macro and micro-nutrients)
- Animal nutrition
- Classes of food substances; carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts and water
- Food tests (e.g. starch, reducing sugar, protein, oil, fat etc.
- The mammalian tooth (structures, types and functions
- Mammalian alimentary canal
- Nutrition process (ingestion, digestion, absorption, and assimilation of digested food.
- Need for transportation
- Materials for transportation. (Excretory products, gases, manufactured food, digested food, nutrient, water and hormones)
- Channels for transportation
i. Mammalian circulatory system (heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries)
ii Plant vascular system (phloem and xylem)
- Media and processes of mechanism for transportation.
- Respiratory organs and surfaces
- The mechanism of gaseous exchange in:
- Aerobic respiration
- Anaerobic respiration
- Types of excretory structures: contractile vacuole, flamecell, nephridium, Malpighian tubule, kidney, stoma and lenticel.
- Excretory mechanisms:
- Excretory products of plants
6. Support and movement
- Tropic, tactic, nastic and sleep movements in plants
- Supporting tissues in animals
- Types and functions of the skeleton
iii. Functions of the skeleton in animals
- Asexual reproduction
i. Fission as in Paramecium
ii. Budding as in yeast
iii. Natural vegetative propagation
iv. Artificial vegetative propagation.
- Sexual reproduction in flowering plants
i. Floral parts and their functions
ii. Pollination and fertilization
iii. products of sexual reproduction
- Reproduction in mammals
i. structures and functions of the male and female reproductive organs
ii. Fertilization and development. (Fusion of gamates)
- Meaning of growth
- Germination of seeds and condition necessary for germination of seeds.
9. Co-ordination and control
- Nervous coordination:
i. the components, structure and functions of the central nervous system;
ii. The components and functions of the peripheral nervous systems;
iii. Mechanism of transmission of impulses;
iv. Reflex action
- The sense organs
i. skin (tactile)
ii. nose (olfactory)
iii. tongue (taste)
iv. eye (sight)
v. ear (auditory)
- Hormonal control
i. animal hormonal system
– adrenal gland
ii. Plant hormones (phytohormones)
i. Body temperature regulation
ii. Salt and water regulation
1. Factors affecting the distribution of Organisms
2. Symbiotic interactions of plants and animals
- Energy flow in the ecosystem: food chains, food webs and trophic levels
- Nutrient cycling in nature
i. carbon cycle
ii. water cycle
iii. Nitrogen cycle
3. Natural Habitats
- Aquatic (e.g. ponds, streams, lakes seashores and mangrove swamps)
- Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g. tree-tops of oil palm, abandoned farmland or a dry grassy (savanna) field, and burrow or hole.
4. Local (Nigerian Biomes)
- Tropical rainforest
- Guinea savanna (southern and northern)
- Sudan Savanna
- Highlands of montane forests and grasslands of the Obudu, Jos, Mambilla Plateau.
5. The Ecology of Populations:
- Population density and overcrowding.
- Adaptation for survival
i. Factors that bring about competition
ii. Intra and inter-specific competition
iii. Relationship between competition and succession.
- Factors affecting population sizes:
i. Biotic (e.g. food, pest, disease, predation, competition, reproductive ability).
ii. Abiotic (e.g. temperature, space, light, rainfall, topography, pressure, pH, etc.
- Ecological succession
i. primary succession
ii. secondary succession
- characteristics of different types of soil (sandy, loamy, clayey)
- soil structure
- porosity, capillarity and humus content
- Components of the soil
iii. soil organisms
iv. Soil air
v. Soil water
- Soil fertility:
i. loss of soil fertility
ii. Renewal and maintenance of soil fertility
7. Humans and Environment
(i) Common and endemic diseases.
ii. Easily transmissible diseases and disease syndrome such as:
– sexually transmitted disease/syndrome (gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc.
- Pollution and its control
(i) sources, types, effects and methods of control.
(ii) Sanitation and sewage
- Conservation of Natural Resources
- Game reserves and National parks
D: HEREDITY AND VARIATIONS
(I) Variation In Population
- Morphological variations in the physical appearance of individuals.
(i) size (height, weight)
(ii) Colour (skin, eye, hair, coat of animals, scales and feathers.
- Physiological variation
(i) Ability to roll tongue
(ii) Ability to taste
(iii) Blood groups
- Application of discontinuous
variation in crime detection,
blood transfusion and
determination of paternity.
- Inheritance of characters in organisms;
i) Heritable and non-heritable characters.
- Chromosomes – the basis of heredity;
(ii) Process of transmission of hereditary characters from parents to offspring.
- Probability in genetics and sex determination.
a) Application of the principles of heredity in:
b. Sex – linked characters e.g. baldness, haemophilia, colour blindness, etc.
YOU ARE ADVISED TO DOWNLOAD THE JAMB BIOLOGY SYLLABUS 2021 PDF TO GET THE OBJECTIVES OF EACH TOPIC. CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD THE PDF.
RECOMMENDED TEXTS FOR JAMB BIOLOGY
- Ndu, F.O. C. Ndu, Abun A. and Aina J.O. (2001) Senior Secondary School Biology:
Books 1 -3, Lagos: Longman
- Odunfa, S.A. (2001) Essential of Biology, Ibadan: Heinemann
- Ogunniyi M.B. Adebisi A.A. and Okojie J.A. (2000) Biology for Senior Secondary Schools: Books 1 – 3, Macmillan
- Ramalingam, S.T. (2005) Modern Biology, SS Science Series. New Edition, AFP
- Stan. (2004) Biology for Senior Secondary Schools. Revised Edition, Ibadan: Heinemann
- Stone R.H. and Cozens, A.B.C. (1982) Biology for West African Schools. Longman
- Usua, E.J. (1997) Handbook of practical Biology 2nd Edition, University Press, Limited
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